Silver nanoparticles are antimicrobial agents used to treat wastewater with high bacterial contamination levels.
The consistency of treated wastewater is an important consideration for its reuse, as the recycled water must meet the safety requirements for its intended use. A large volume of polluted wastewater is released from many industrial processes. Industrial wastewater contains a variety of pollutants, contingent on the production method.
Chemical constituents, poisonous heavy metals, excessive salinity, extreme pH, and high turbidity from inorganic impurities are all examples of industrial wastewater pollutants.
Nanotechnology is one of the greatest researched inventions of the twenty-first century. Wastewater treatment is categorized into three categories based on the form of nanomaterial:
Photocatalytic activities, which incorporate the interaction of light energy with metallic nanoparticles, are used in this treatment. Photocatalytic actions destroy microorganisms (bacteria) and organic substances by reacting with hydroxyl radicals. Inorganic materials like metal oxides and semiconductors are usually used in nanocatalysts.
This treatment uses organic or inorganic nanomaterials with a high affinity for adsorbing substances. These adsorbents are highly effective at eradicating a wide range of pollutants.
The optimal absorbent is small, has a large surface area, great catalytic potential, and high reactivity. Metallic nanoparticles, nanostructured mixed oxides, magnetic nanoparticles, and metallic oxide nanoparticles are the four kinds of nano-adsorbents identified by their adsorption method.
Nanomembranes can separate contaminants from wastewater in this treatment. Heavy metals, dyes, and other chemicals are usually removed using these. Nanotubes, nanoribbons, and nanofibers are examples of widely used nanomembranes. Silver nanoparticles are antimicrobial agents in wastewater treatment with high bacterial contamination levels.
Silver and graphene oxide nanoparticles play a dual role in biofouling prevention (disable bacterial cells) and microbial attachment reduction by forming a solid water layer due to their hydrophilic existence.